2.2.6. The books make fascinating reading, showing how marginal and precarious many people's lives were, in what, at that time, must have been the richest city in the world. These included street vendors of fruits, flowers, fish, sundries, meals and snacks. - Bartenstein, Winfried: Arbeit mit französischen Sachtexten. Note:1,0. This context must be expressible verbally. 2.1. Especially Bühler and Jakobson have developed useful theories about functions and factors of language. The 1861 edition included a fourth volume, co-written with Bracebridge Hemyng, John Binny and Andrew Halliday, on the lives of prostitutes, thieves and beggars; this extra volume took a more general and statistical approach to its subject than the earlier works.

New York, 1968, S.137. After having told the story of the bone-grubber sitting on the floor of a beer-shop (p. 136) he states: „I believe that no better description could be given of that vacuity of mind or mental inactivity which seems to form a part of the most degraded callings. They are dependent from the sender and express his inner attitude to it. London Labour and the London Poor is a detailed examination of the characters who frequented the streets of that great city between 1860 and 1937. So for sure, there are a lot of it in every text, but here the most significant repetition is again found in the structure.
The both models of language theory allow us to get a closer look at the variable functions of language. 2.2.1. everything you need to sharpen your knowledge of London Labour and the London Poor. But Mayhew’s text does not really fulfil the normal schemes. Or take the image of „the scavengers“: their job is to take what no one wants anymore, namely to collect things out of the dustbins.

A Text Analysis Under Consideration of the Six Different Functions To answer these questions the use of language theory can be helpful. - Publication as eBook and book

Mayhew's perception as an observer is unsurpassed in early descriptions of London's street scenes. Thus, if the assertion is made that 8,000 of a particular type of trader operate in the streets, Mayhew compares this to the total number of miles of street in the city, with an estimate of how many traders operate per mile. To find out more about cookies or to manage the usage of cookies, please read our privacy policy. As a next step, the six different functions will be used on the text, but they are not used in the same intesity. Coming from Mayhew it was close to … Later, they will serve to go into the text and to answer the questions above. Order our London Labour and the London Poor Study Guide Henry Mayhew This Study Guide consists of approximately 34 pages of chapter summaries, quotes, character analysis, themes, and more - everything you need to sharpen your knowledge of London Labour and the London Poor. But all in all this function does not occur too often because the subject of the report does not really deal with specific terms. These are factors for a report, but the way this information is presented is totally untypical: there are lots of images in it which also help to fulfil another function of this report: it is a clear appeal to the rest of society to act against such circumstances, to help these poor labourers. The several interviews he leads with the workers also seem in some passages to influence the reader in his attitude towards the labourers, for example the one he leads with a sewer-hunter. A fourth "Extra Volume", published in 1861, was co-written with Bracebridge Hemyng, John Binny, and Andrew Halliday, covered the lives of streetwalkers, thieves, and beggars, though it departed from the interview format to take a more general and statistical approach to its subject. In his writing (I was so much struck...) and in his acting (offering a job to the boy) he shows that he was so strongly moved that he even tries to change at least one worker’s fate, namely the one of the little mud-lark. In the 1840s, he observed, documented, and described the state of working people in London for a series of articles in a newspaper, the Morning Chronicle, that were later compiled into book form. This is even stressed by the following: „ Upon his leaving me, 2s were given him for his trouble.

At these few examples we can see that there is a lot of expressive function in the text. Therefore the phatic function is not really needed because the stress is on the information. He explains and categorises the London poor in a way understandable for everyone. A very clear passage where he explicitly expresses his feelings is the situation when he talks to the little mud-lark. The Function of Appeal

Henry Mayhew wrote with „London Labour and the London poor“ a social report.

Most of the things are clear and need not be explained. In this passage, although he does not even comment on it, Mayhew manages to point out to the other people that these poor workers can even in this situation find something good about it, for example their freedom from not being ordered about by someone else. The phatic function should keep the contact to the reader by means of formulas, repetitions or phrases. The name of „the sewer-hunters“ for example tells us that they really hunt the sewer for things to sell. This message needs a context to which it can reefer to be received. Another example for the poetic function is - again - the anecdote of the bone-grubber in the beer-shop. This story can as well be counted to the poetic function as this story is a continued metaphor or allegory. The minds of such men, even without an approach to idiocy, appear to be blank.“ This sentence includes his impressions, is even a judgement about all of these poor people. „Of late, however, to remedy this defect, the Commissioners have had a strong brick wall built within the entrance to the several sewers.“[8] Here, the mere facts are mentioned. These definitions and explanations help the reader to understand the text.

The three classes with their differences occur again and again. Much of the material comprises detailed interviews in which people candidly describe their lives and work. Stuttgart, 1976. In the text itself we also find a lot of passages where he expresses his feelings and judgements towards the people he writes about. Language signs are complex and have several semantic functions. - Every paper finds readers.

In the early 1950s, Punch published a series of articles based upon and to some extent parodying London Labour and the London Poor. Let us take a closer look on the single factors and in which function they occur: The sender as a factor and the expressive function belong together, because the message always contains the feelings, memories , associations and judgements of its sender. - High royalties for the sales These three functions appear in a constellation with sender, receiver and things. This corresponds to explanations or definitions for the used terms. [1] Longman group Ltd (Hg.

His richly detailed descriptions are able to give an impression of what the street markets of his day were like. The extract details a rape: "Of course I was drugged, and so heavily I did not regain consciousness until the next morning. London labour and the London poor Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. Farther on, we can also find a lot of images in the whole text, for example, the description of the mud-larks. At first, these models will be explained by means of the given literature. This is a way to express also the disgust felt when being informed about some of the workers’ fates. Often, one and the same passage can have several functions at the same time. When I’m hard up, I knows as how I must work, and then I goes at it like sticks a breaking; and tho’ the times isn’t as they was, I can go now and pick up my five bob a day, where another wouldn’t know how to get a brass farden.“. Another section details the lives of … And considering the dangers which lurk in the sewer (e.g. Here the fact that this finding of bones is existential for those people is stressed.

[2] Bühler, Karl: Sprachtheorie. Throughout the text, British monetary units from the 1800s are used. Michele Robert's novel The Walworth Beauty presents a fictional account of the composition of London Labour and the London Poor. „I was so much struck with the boy’s truthfulness of manner, that I asked him, would, he really lead a different life, if he saw means of so doing?“[10].

In looking at this function we are reminded of the text being a report. For instance, Jack Black talks about his job as "rat and mole destroyer to Her Majesty", remaining in good humour despite his experience of a succession of near-fatal infections from bites.[1].
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